IASGO 33rd World Congress Istanbul | In-Person | 28 September
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Istanbul & Turkey

About Turkey

Turkey has a very strategic location between the Asian and European continents. Turkey, which acts as a bridge in the political and economic sense, is one of the most important powers of the region. It is necessary to emphasize that Turkey, which is a very important country in terms of its location, has great importance not only in the economic and political sense but also in the cultural context. Combining modern and traditional, Turkey manages to be the center of attention of many people with its historical and cultural riches.

about turkey

As a modern country founded on the territory of Anatolia, Turkey combines its modern culture with its rich cultural and historical heritage within its borders. In this aspect, Turkey has a cultural mosaic that brings together different deciphers.
Anatolian lands, one of the first places where settlement and collective life were seen for the first time in the world, have proved this feature by continuing to be the most important point of the world for centuries. The attractive features of Central and Western Anatolia have made Anatolia special. In addition, Mesopotamia, which lies between the Euphrates River and the Tigris River, also proves that the Anatolian lands are very special.
Anatolia, which has been home to many civilizations throughout history, has been the main homeland of the Turks since 1071. The Turks, who settled in Anatolia with the Victory of Malazgirt in 1071, have been the judge and owner of Anatolia for about 1000 years. The Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians and many other civilizations that existed on these lands before the arrival of the Turks in Anatolia indicate the cultural richness of Turkey.
In addition to these civilizations, which have a great role in making Turkey a cultural attraction today, the Seljuks, Ottomans, and Byzantium are also the civilizations that make up the cultural codes of Anatolia. Turkey is a place where different religions, languages, races, and sects coexist in this aspect.

Although Turkey is considered a name of the Anatolian lands, it is also an abbreviation of the Republic of Turkey. With this feature, the concept of Turkey is used in different meanings. When you use Turkey as a political concept, you are faced with the Republic of Turkey, which was established in 1923.

During the period from the establishment of the Ottoman Empire in 1299 until its official abolition in 1923, the Turks were citizens of the Ottoman State. However, when the weakening Ottoman State could not keep up with the requirements of the era, it was replaced by a strong and modern Turkey. Turkey was established under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal as a result of the state of war that began in 1914 and continued with defeats.

The Turkish people, who participated in many wars to achieve national independence and ensure the territorial integrity of the country, established the modern republic in difficulties. In Anatolia, destroyed by the war environment, there has been a rebirth with the republic declared in 1923. October 29, 1923, means the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and the birth of modern Turkey.

The Republic of Turkey, which is preparing to celebrate its 100th anniversary, continues to exist as a secular legal state by the principles of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. With this feature, Turkey, which has a strong political infrastructure, continues to paint the image of a strong country with an understanding that believes in democracy.

Turkey, as a middle belt country, experiences 4 seasons at the same time. The area of Turkey, which is quite special in this aspect, is also quite large. Turkey, which has a very large territory in the East-West direction, is surrounded by the sea from 3 sides. There are 7 different geographical regions in Turkey, the country of the peninsula. Biological diversity is also quite large due to weather conditions in 7 geographies where climatic conditions are different from each other.
The landforms of Turkey, which is neighboring Syria, Iraq, Iran, Bulgaria, Greece, Armenia, and Georgia, are also quite diverse. In this aspect, there are also quite a lot of tourist opportunities offered by geography in Turkey. The coldest region of the country is the Eastern Anatolia Region, located in the easternmost part. The point where temperatures reach the highest levels is the Southeastern Anatolia Region located on the border of Syria and Iraq.

The highest mountain in Turkey is Mount Ararat, and the largest lake is Lake Van. Due to the diversity of landforms, the economic diversity in Turkey is also very large. While animal husbandry is carried out in mountainous regions, agricultural production is quite high in the plains. One of the biggest privileges of Turkey being a middle belt country is that diversity is at a very successful point in agricultural production.

Turkey is one of the important countries that can survive with its strong economy. along with the 2000s, the achievement of political stability in Turkey has also brought about economic development. Turkey, which is one of the G-20 countries about infrastructure investments and the inflow of foreign capital to Turkey, has a very strong economic outlook.

The Turkish economy, which is growing with the more extensive investments of domestic investors every day, has gained a strong outlook with the investments of foreign investors in Turkey. The most important sectors in the economic development of Turkey are tourism and industry, while real estate investments have recently reached very serious levels. In this context, Turkey has become the focus of attention of both European and Middle Eastern countries.

The presence of Turkey on the intersection roads has also led to a very significant development of the transport sector in terms of economic activities. In this context, Turkey has the distinction of being a respected country in the world in road, sea, and air transportation. Continuing investments unabated in Turkey, which carries its success in the field of transportation to a very important point with port and highway investments, also provides economic strengthening.

One of the first countries that come to mind when it comes to tourist beauty and travel in Turkey. Thanks to its natural and cultural riches, it is the center of attention of the region. Moreover, the tourist attractions that spread to all parts of the country are among the reasons why travel lovers prefer Turkey. In addition to tourist wealth, tourism investments are also increasing, which is very important for Turkey to become a focal point.

In the tourist sense, it is possible to mention the existence of different alternatives in Turkey. Cultural tourism comes to the fore for those who want to explore historical and natural beauties. On the other hand, millions of people who want to enjoy summer on the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts prefer Turkey. Winter tourism is also at interesting levels in Turkey, where summer tourism has reached an impeccable point. Many ski resorts, such as Uludag and Kartalkaya, come to the fore in meeting people's holiday expectations.

It is impossible not to mention Istanbul when talking about tourist travel. Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire for 5 centuries, is at the forefront of cultural wealth. In addition to Istanbul, regions such as Mardin and Cappadocia are also areas of cultural heritage interest. Many beauties within the scope of the ‘World Cultural Heritage List’ declared by UNESCO are located within the borders of Turkey. For this reason, Turkey has the characteristic of being an unusual country.

Quite successful developments in the field of health occur in the world where technological developments have reached very serious levels. In this context, Turkey is a very special country which is among the developing countries. Turkey has a very strong system thanks to the infrastructure investments in the health system.

It has been possible to obtain quality health services within the framework of investments made for Turkish citizens to receive better quality health services. In this aspect, Turkey is a country where not only its citizens but also citizens of foreign countries can access quality services. Thanks to this feature, it becomes the choice of a large number of individuals from Turkey, Europe, and the Middle East countries to receive health services.

In Turkey, where technological developments and investments in the field of health have reached serious heights, health tourism has become an area that attracts a lot of attention in an economic and tourist sense. In this context, it is necessary to emphasize that Turkey is a very important country both in the region and in the world.

While Turkey is a special country in almost every sense, it also manages to attract the attention of many people with its cuisine. The food culture is quite developed in Turkey, where different cultures are blended. Turkish food, which causes unforgettable sensations in the palates, is one of the reasons why many people visit Turkey. At this point, it is possible to state that Turkey has integrated regional wealth at some point!
Many flavors such as Kebab, Kofte, Iskender Kebab, and Çiğköfte are among the most special foods in Turkey. In this aspect, Turkey manages to meet the taste expectations in the best way.

Turkey is a country where differences come together, it also reflects diversity in the context of religion and sect. For this reason, everyone who is interested in Turkey should look at the details about religion. In Turkey, which is a secular republic, religion is an issue that is treated with tolerance. Although a very large part of the country's population is Muslim, people are belonging to different religions who are considered a minority. Christianity, Judaism, and other religions are beliefs that are tolerated in Turkey.

About Istanbul

about istanbul

Istanbul is one of the most prominent cities in both Turkey and the world due to its culture, nature, and history. Istanbul, which is geographically located as a bridge connecting Asia and Europe, also hosts thousands of tourists during the year. There are also various questions that people are wondering about Istanbul, to which both domestic and foreign tourists flock.

Istanbul is an extremely well-established city in terms of its history. Istanbul, which was the capital of two major empires, was divided into two parts as the Roman Empire West and East when the Roman Emperor moved the capital to Istanbul. This shows that Istanbul has extremely great importance from a historical point of view. In addition to these, when we look at the recent history of Istanbul, we can talk about the period when it was the capital of the Ottoman Empire. With the conquest of Istanbul by the Conqueror, the capital of the Ottoman Empire was moved from Edirne to Istanbul, and another capital was added to the glorious history of Istanbul. Istanbul has witnessed many historical events between the Roman Period and the present day. Therefore, we can say that Istanbul is extremely rich in both historical and natural beauty.

Istanbul, one of the most prominent cities in the world in terms of historical and natural beauties, has an increasing population day by day and a city texture that has become a shambles due to this. We can say that this urban fabric creates its unique order in the chaos. Most tourist spots located in Istanbul are gathered in the area called "Historical Peninsula". Although there has been an issue of closing this area to traffic in the past, no decision has been taken in this direction. In almost every point of this city where the West and the East intersect, you can see the good and the bad, the beautiful and the ugly, the old and the new side by side.

This city has been the center of two great empires and two sacred religions in history. The remaining traces of this past can be seen all over the city, although care has not been taken to protect it. Istanbul houses the most important shrines of both Islam and Orthodox Christianity. The most famous points of the city is within walking distance of each other. In this direction, we can mention that Istanbul attracts a lot of attention from domestic and foreign tourists.

Istanbul is located at 41°N, 29°E coordinates. To the west of the city is the Çatalca Peninsula, to the east is the Kocaeli Peninsula. It is possible to see the Palace connected to Tekirdağ, Cerkezkoy, Tekirdağ, Çorlu, Tekirdağ, Tekirdağ in the west, Marmara Ereğlisi connected to Tekirdağ in the southwest when you look at the northwestern part of Istanbul consisting of the Black Sea in the north, the Sea of Marmara in the south and the Bosphorus in the middle.

In addition, the districts of Kandıra, which is connected to Kocaeli, the Gulf, which is connected to Kocaeli, to the east, and Gebze, which is connected to Kocaeli, are located in the northeast of the city. From the peninsulas that make up Istanbul, Çatalca is known as Europe, and Kocaeli is known as the Asian mainland. The Bosphorus Strait, located right in the central part of the city, connects these two continents. The Fatih Sultan Mehmet and Bosphorus Bridges on the Bosphorus are tasked with connecting the two sides of the city. It is located in the northwest of Turkey along the Bosphorus and surrounding the Golden Horn.

Istanbul has a culinary culture originating from Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire. But most of the traditional dishes have been forgotten and replaced by new ones. As a meeting point of tastes, Istanbul offers tastes from all regions together. Although the culinary culture of the city varies according to periods, some flavors have always maintained their popularity. Kebabs and restaurants specific to the Southeastern Anatolia region have become very popular in Istanbul over the last 20 years. The cuisine of the city varies between regions.

The fact that the phenomenon called Istanbul culture has been replaced by Anatolian culture has narrowed the boundaries of Istanbul culture from good to good and has also affected cuisine. However, if there is an advantageous side to this, it serves all the flavors of Turkish cuisine are presented together.

In addition, Asian and European restaurants take their place in the city, mainly in Greece, China, and France. Fast food as an influence of American culture has become significantly widespread in recent years. So much so that fast-food shops selling products such as burgers, pizza, lahmacun, burritos, sandwiches, toast, and hot dogs can be seen one after another on the streets of Istanbul.

There are many places to visit in Istanbul in terms of culture, history, and natural places. We can explain the places to visit in Istanbul as follows.

Hagia Sophia Museum
Hagia Sophia Museum should be at the top of your list of places to visit in Istanbul. It is one of the most spectacular buildings in the history of world architecture.  Hagia Sophia Museum, which has become an icon of Istanbul, has a very important place for both Turkey and Istanbul and the world. Hagia Sophia was turned into a museum on February 1, 1935, at the request of Mustafa Kemal. The monument, which is one of the museums to be visited in Istanbul, is open to local and foreign tourists.

Galata Tower
Another of the symbols of Istanbul is undoubtedly the Galata Tower. Galata Tower, which has an extremely romantic structure, is one of the various elements that make up the silhouette of Istanbul.
Many legends have been produced about him, he has been talked about and is also being talked about. The Galata Tower is one of the most important elements that make up the city's skyline. It is assumed that it was built in the time of Emperor Justinian, although it is not certain when this magnificent tower was built.

Istanbul Archaeological Museum
Artifacts from the Ottoman Period to the present day are exhibited in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. You should visit the Istanbul Archaeological Museum to see these artifacts.
The Istanbul Archaeological Museum is one of the largest museums in the world today. The Tiled Pavilion located in the museum complex is one of the examples of civil architecture built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in Istanbul. Today, this structure is used for the exhibition of Turkish tiles and ceramics. One of the two buildings located around the Tiled Pavilion was built as the first Academy of Fine Arts of the Ottoman Empire and later organized as the Museum of Ancient Oriental Works.

Blue Mosque
One of the important silhouettes of Istanbul is the Blue Mosque. The mosque was built by Sultan Ahmet the 1st between 1609 and 1616, is known as the most important and largest mosque of the Classical Period. It is also possible to see the architectural effects of Hagia Sophia in the Blue Mosque.

Suleymaniye Mosque
the Suleymaniye Mosque, built by Mimar Sinan between 1551 and 1557, can be explained as the interpretation of Hagia Sophia by Mimar Sinan. During your trip to Istanbul, you should visit the Suleymaniye Mosque.
The Blue Mosque is extremely ostentatious, contrary to the modesty seen in Ottoman architecture up to this time. The mihrab, the pulpit and the hünkar enclosure of the mosque are specially processed works of art. Sultanahmet is the only mosque in the world with 6 minarets.

Topkapi Palace

Topkapi Palace, one of the most tourist-attracting places in Istanbul, bears the great and deep traces of the Ottoman Empire. Construction of the palace I. Bayezid, I. Selim, and to some extent I. It lasted during the reigns of Suleiman and the sultans who took over after him

Dolmabahce Palace
The palace, built by Sultan Abdulmecit, has great importance in the history of Turkey. The palace, which is the place where Ataturk died, is of great interest to tourists coming to the city.

The Basilica Cistern
The Basilica Cistern, which is a place that you should add to your list of places to visit in Istanbul, consists of marble columns that look like countless. You should visit the Basilica Cistern, one of the most beautiful places in Istanbul.  Due to the fact that there was previously a basilica on the site of the structure, it is also referred to as the Basilica Cistern. The walls and floor of the cistern, 4.8 meters thick, made of brick, were plastered with a thick layer of Khorasan mortar and made waterproof.

Kariye Museum
The museum, known as the Kariye Museum or the Kariye Mosque, was built by St. Teodius in 534 and has survived to the present day. You can witness its unique history by adding Kariye Museum to your list of places to visit in Istanbul.

Kalenderhane Mosque

Kalenderhane Mosque has an extremely long history. The mosque, built as one of the Byzantine churches, was built on the site of the Roman bathhouse.  The Kariye Mosque or Hora Monastery and Church were originally built as a monastery by Saint Teodius during the reign of Justinian in 534. The painted decorations in the Monastery and Church of Hora represent the most important artistic effort of the Paleologos Renaissance.

Fatih Mosque
The Fatih Mosque, built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1462, is one of the most important mosques of Istanbul.

Çamlıca Hill
Seeing such sights as the Sea of Marmara, the Islands, Beyoglu, the Bosphorus, Camlica Hill is a unique place for those who want to watch Istanbul from a bird's eye view.

Maiden's tower
The Maiden's Tower is one of the symbols of Istanbul. The Maiden's Tower, which is connected to Uskudar, is an extremely elegant tower on a small island.

Istiklal Street
Not without coming to Istanbul and visiting Istiklal Caddesi. Istanbul Street, the main street of Beyoglu, is the most crowded and favorite street in Istanbul.

As a monument between Beylerbeyi and Ortakoy, the Bosphorus is the first bridge connecting Asia and Europe. You should see the Bosphorus bridge during your trip to Istanbul. In particular, by participating in the moonlight tour, you can see the Bosphorus Bridge much more closely.

Sahaflar Bazaar
If you are interested in books, the Bazaar of the Fields is for you. You can reach Sahaflar Bazaar by passing through the Grand Bazaar.

Grand Bazaar
Grand Bazaar is the most important bazaar of Istanbul. Be sure to choose the Grand Bazaar, a bazaar that everyone prefers from seven to seventy, during your trip to Istanbul.

Rumeli Fortress
Rumeli Fortress was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1452. Hisar, located at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus, is a place that you should add to your list of places to visit in Istanbul.

The islands, which were called the People's Islands in ancient times, are one of the most outstanding places in Istanbul. Especially the people of Istanbul can spend a unique weekend visiting the Islands on the weekend.

Gulhane Park
Gülhane Park was formerly used as the garden of Topkapi Palace. However, nowadays the park has become a park that is often preferred by those who want to get a sense of nature in the city center.

Aydos Forest
Aydos Forest is the most beautiful and largest lung of Istanbul. Aydos Forest, which is connected to the districts of Kartal, Sultanbeyli, and Pendik, is a park often preferred by those who are tired of the crowds and noise of the city. You can also choose Aydos Forest during your trip to Istanbul.

Kucuksu Kasri
Küçüksu Kasri, also known as Göksu Kasri, is located in the Küçüksu district of Istanbul. Küçüksu Kasri Istanbul, which has a very stylish appearance, is a must-go place during your trip.
Apart from the ones mentioned above, you can also visit the following places in Istanbul.

  • Akmar Beach
  • Sadberk Hanım Museum
  • Eminonu
  • Garipçe Village
  • Belgrade Forest
  • Karaburun
  • Lake Terkos
  • Bostanci Amusement Park
  • Selimiye Barracks
  • Çemberlitaş
  • Hidiv Kasrı


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